Overview of latest articles and publications on gene therapy in PubMed, including Human Gene Therapy, Journal of Molecular Medicine and Journal of Gene Medicine. PubMed is a service of the US National Library of Medicine that includes over 18 million citations from MEDLINE and other life science journals.
- Gene Editing and Genetic Lung Disease: Basic Research Meets Therapeutic Application.
Gene Editing and Genetic Lung Disease: Basic Research Meets Therapeutic Application. [Journal Article]Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2016 Oct 25.AJAlapati D, Morrisey EE While our understanding of the genetics and pathology of congenital lung diseases such as surfactant protein deficiency, cystic fibrosis and alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency is extensive, treatment optio...While our understanding of the genetics and pathology of congenital lung diseases such as surfactant protein deficiency, cystic fibrosis and alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency is extensive, treatment options are lacking. Since the lung is a barrier organ in direct communication with the external environment, targeted delivery of gene corrective technologies to the respiratory system via intra-tracheal or intranasal routes is an attractive option for therapy. CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology is a promising approach to repair or inactivate disease causing mutations. Recent reports have provided proof of concept by using CRISPR/Cas9 to successfully repair or inactivate mutations in animal models of monogenic human diseases. Potential pulmonary applications of CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing include gene correction of monogenic diseases in pre- or postnatal lungs and ex vivo gene editing of patient specific airway stem cells followed by autologous cell transplant. Strategies to enhance gene editing efficiency and eliminate off target effects by targeting pulmonary stem/progenitor cells and assessment of short term and long term effects of gene editing are important considerations as the field advances. If methods continue to advance rapidly, CRISPR/Cas9 mediated gene editing may provide a novel opportunity to correct monogenic diseases of the respiratory system.
- Stem cell therapies for congenital heart disease.
Stem cell therapies for congenital heart disease. [Review, Journal Article]Biomed Pharmacother 2016 Oct 22.:1163-1171.BPGhafarzadeh M, Namdari M, Eatemadi A Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most prevalent congenital anomaly in newborn babies. Cardiac malformations have been induced in different animal model experiments, by perturbing some molecules th...Publisher Full TextCongenital heart disease (CHD) is the most prevalent congenital anomaly in newborn babies. Cardiac malformations have been induced in different animal model experiments, by perturbing some molecules that take part in the developmental pathways associated with myocyte differentiation, specification, or cardiac morphogenesis. The exact epigenetic, environmental, or genetic, basis for these molecules perturbations is yet to be understood. But, scientist have bridged this gap by introducing autologous stem cell into the defective hearts to treat CHD. The choice of stem cells to use has also raised an issue. In this review, we explore different stem cells that have been recently used, as an update into the pool of this knowledge and we suggested the future perspective into the choice of stem cells to control this disease. We propose that isolating mesenchymal stem cells from neonate will give a robust heart regeneration as compared to adults. This source are easily isolated. To unveil stem cell therapy beyond its possibility and safety, further study is required, including largescale randomized, and clinical trials to certify the efficacy of stem cell therapy.
- Surface modification of nanostructure lipid carrier (NLC) by oleoyl-quaternized-chitosan as a mucoadhesive nanocarrier.
Surface modification of nanostructure lipid carrier (NLC) by oleoyl-quaternized-chitosan as a mucoadhesive nanocarrier. [Journal Article]Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2016 Sep 29.:301-311.CSYostawonkul J, Surassmo S, Iempridee T, et al. A nanostructure lipid carrier (NLC) composed of solid, and liquid lipid as a core has been developed as a delivery system for hydrophobic drug molecules. The aim of this research was to fabricate an ol...Publisher Full TextA nanostructure lipid carrier (NLC) composed of solid, and liquid lipid as a core has been developed as a delivery system for hydrophobic drug molecules. The aim of this research was to fabricate an oleoyl-quaternized-chitosan (CS)-coated NLC, where the mucoadhesive property of nanoparticles is enhanced for more efficient drug delivery. NLC loaded with alpha-mangostin (AP), a model hydrophobic drug, were fabricated using a high pressure homogenization process and subsequently coated with CS. The fabricated nanoparticles showed particle sizes in the range of 200-400nm, with low polydispersity, high physical stability and excellent encapsulation efficiency (EE>90%). Additionally, in vitro viability, cytotoxicity and ability of NLC and CS-NLC to affect apoptosis in carcinoma Caco-2 cells were determined using the Triplex assay. Gene expressiom analysis were performed using quantitative reverse transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR). Moreover, in vivo toxicological testing of NLCs was conducted in zebrafish embryos. Results indicated that CS-NLC provieded high cytotoxicity than NLC itself. In the case of AP loaded nanoparticles, NLC loaded with AP (AP-NLC), and CS-NLC loaded with AP (CS-AP-NLC) exhibited higher cytotoxicity to Caco-2 over Hela cells. These results indicate that CS-NLC shows enhanced cellular uptake but increased cytotoxicity characteristics over NLC and therefore careful optimization of dosage and loading levels in CS-NLC is needed to allow cancer cell targeting, and for exploiting the potential of these systems in cancer therapy.
- Severe Hemophilia A in a Male Old English Sheep Dog with a C→T Transition that Created a Premature Stop Codon in Factor VIII.
Severe Hemophilia A in a Male Old English Sheep Dog with a C→T Transition that Created a Premature Stop Codon in Factor VIII. [Journal Article]Comp Med 2016; 66(5):405-411.CMLozier JN, Kloos MT, Merricks EP, et al. Animals with hemophilia are models for gene therapy, factor replacement, and inhibitor development in humans. We have actively sought dogs with severe hemophilia A that have novel factor VIII mutations...Animals with hemophilia are models for gene therapy, factor replacement, and inhibitor development in humans. We have actively sought dogs with severe hemophilia A that have novel factor VIII mutations unlike the previously described factor VIII intron 22 inversion. A male Old English Sheepdog with recurrent soft-tissue hemorrhage and hemarthrosis was diagnosed with severe hemophilia A (factor VIII activity less than 1% of normal). We purified genomic DNA from this dog and ruled out the common intron 22 inversion; we then sequenced all 26 exons. Comparing the results with the normal canine factor VIII sequence revealed a C→T transition in exon 12 of the factor VIII gene that created a premature stop codon at amino acid 577 in the A2 domain of the protein. In addition, 2 previously described polymorphisms that do not cause hemophilia were present at amino acids 909 and 1184. The hemophilia mutation creates a new TaqI site that facilitates rapid genotyping of affected offspring by PCR and restriction endonuclease analyses. This mutation is analogous to the previously described human factor VIII mutation at Arg583, which likewise is a CpG dinucleotide transition causing a premature stop codon in exon 12. Thus far, despite extensive treatment with factor VIII, this dog has not developed neutralizing antibodies ('inhibitors') to the protein. This novel mutation in a dog gives rise to severe hemophilia A analogous to a mutation seen in humans. This model will be useful for studies of the treatment of hemophilia.
- Microfluidic profiling of apoptosis-related genes after treatment with BH3-mimetic agents in astrocyte and glioblastoma cell lines.
Microfluidic profiling of apoptosis-related genes after treatment with BH3-mimetic agents in astrocyte and glioblastoma cell lines. [Journal Article]Oncol Rep 2016 Oct 21.ORVidomanova E, Racay P, Pilchova I, et al. Glioblastoma (GB) is the most frequent and biologically the most aggressive primary brain tumor in adults. Standard treatment for newly diagnosed GB consists of surgical resection, radiotherapy and che...Glioblastoma (GB) is the most frequent and biologically the most aggressive primary brain tumor in adults. Standard treatment for newly diagnosed GB consists of surgical resection, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Resistance to therapy is a major obstacle, even with optimal treatment with a survival median of only 12-15 months. The heterogeneity and treatment response of GB makes this tumor type a challenging area of research. The aim of our study was to study the response of normal human astrocyte (HA) and human GB (T98G) cell lines to apoptosis inhibitors in vitro. ABT-737 is an inhibitor of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Bcl-w, while MIM-1 is an Mcl-1 protein inhibitor. The viability of the cells was assayed biochemically using the cytotoxic methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Changes in the expression of apoptosis-associated genes (n=93) in two human brain cell lines after treatment with the apoptosis inhibitors ABT-737 and MIM-1 (individually), between the apoptosis inhibitor treated group and the control group, were determined using a commercially pre-designed microfluidic array. Significant changes in apoptotic gene expression with more than a 2.0-fold difference in their expression levels were obtained in both cell lines; the most altered genes were in the HA cell line after MIM-1 treatment (n=42). These results contribute to the importance of apoptosis in normal and cancerous brain tissues and provide information on the effect of apoptosis inhibitors on cell viability and gene expression. Despite extensive investigations, a cure for GB is currently not available. The identification of an apoptotic gene panel and determining the sensitivity of normal and GB brain cells to individual apoptosis inhibitors could help to improve clinical practice and increase our understanding of brain tumor cell metabolism and apoptosis inhibitors in GB cells and astrocytes. Recognizing expression changes in pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes could contribute to the development of new treatments.
- SLC25A13 cDNA cloning analysis using peripheral blood lymphocytes facilitates the identification of a large deletion mutation: Molecular diagnosis of an infant with neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency.
SLC25A13 cDNA cloning analysis using peripheral blood lymphocytes facilitates the identification of a large deletion mutation: Molecular diagnosis of an infant with neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency. [Journal Article]Mol Med Rep 2016 Oct 21.MMZeng HS, Lin WX, Zhao ST, et al. Neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency (NICCD) is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from biallelic mutations of the SLC25A13 gene. Due to the lack of well‑recognized clin...Publisher Full TextNeonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency (NICCD) is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from biallelic mutations of the SLC25A13 gene. Due to the lack of well‑recognized clinical or biochemical diagnostic criteria, the definitive diagnosis of this disease relies on the genetic analysis of SLC25A13 at present. As novel large deletion/insertion mutations of the SLC25A13 gene are difficult to detect using routine DNA analytic approaches, the timely diagnosis of patients with these types of mutations remains a challenge. The present study aimed to examine SLC25A13 mutations in an infant with a suspected diagnosis of NICCD. DNA was extracted from blood samples, and SLC25A13 mutations were examined by screening for high‑frequency mutations and Sanger sequencing. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and cDNA cloning analyses were then performed using peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) to identify the obscure mutation. The results demonstrated that the infant was heterozygous for a paternally‑inherited mutation, c.851_854del4, and a maternally‑inherited large deletion, c.1019_1177+893del, which has not been reported previously. A positive diagnosis of NICCD was made, and the infant responded favorably to a galactose‑free and medium‑chain triglyceride‑enriched formula. The present study confirmed the effectiveness of this formula in NICCD therapy, enriched the SLC25A13 mutational spectrum and supported the feasibility of cDNA cloning analysis using PBLs as a molecular tool for facilitating the identification of large SLC25A13 deletions.
- Effect of curcumin and paclitaxel on breast carcinogenesis.
Effect of curcumin and paclitaxel on breast carcinogenesis. [Journal Article]Int J Oncol 2016 Oct 19.IJQuispe-Soto ET, Calaf GM Global cancer burden increased to 14.1 million new cases in 2012; and breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide, with nearly 1.7 million new cases diagnosed in 2012. Curcumin is the ma...Global cancer burden increased to 14.1 million new cases in 2012; and breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide, with nearly 1.7 million new cases diagnosed in 2012. Curcumin is the major bioactive ingredient extracted from the rhizome of the plant Curcuma longa (turmeric). Paclitaxel is a microtubule-stabilizing agent originally isolated from the bark of Taxus brevifolia. Curcumin and paclitaxel were evaluated with two human breast cancer cell lines as the luminal MCF-7 and the basal-like MDA-MB-231 that are either positive or negative for hormonal receptors estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and HER2, respectively. Results indicated that curcumin combined with paclitaxel decreased c-Ha-Ras, Rho-A, p53 and Bcl-xL gene expression in comparison to control and substances alone in MCF-7 cell line. These two substances alone and combined decreased gene expression of Bcl-2 and NF-κB. However, CCND1 increased when both substances were combined in MCF-7 cells. Such substances decreased Bcl-2 and increased Bax protein expression. However, curcumin alone decreased IκBα and Stat-3 gene expression. Paclitaxel alone and combined increased IκBα and Stat-3. Curcumin alone and combined with paclitaxel increased p53, Bid, caspase-3, caspase-8 and Bax gene expression in MDA-MB-231, whereas Bcl-xL decreased such expression in MDA-MB-231 cells. When paclitaxel and curcumin were combined the expression of Bcl-2 protein was decreased. However, either substance alone and combined increased Bax protein expression corroborating the apoptotic effect of these substances. It can be concluded that curcumin may be of considerable value in synergistic therapy of breast cancer reducing the associated toxicity with use of drugs.
- Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor inhibit cholestatic liver injury in mice through different mechanisms.
Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor inhibit cholestatic liver injury in mice through different mechanisms. [Journal Article]Int J Mol Med 2016 Oct 20.IJSakamoto K, Khai NC, Wang Y, et al. In contrast to hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), the therapeutic potential and pathophysiologic roles of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) in liver diseases remain relat...Publisher Full TextIn contrast to hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), the therapeutic potential and pathophysiologic roles of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) in liver diseases remain relatively unknown. To address the lack of effective pharmacologic treatments for cholestatic liver injuries, as well as to clarify the biologic features of these growth factors, we explored the effects of HB-EGF and HGF in mice with cholestatic liver injury induced by bile duct ligation (BDL). The mice were assessed 3, 5 and/or 14 days after BDL (acute, subacute and/or chronic phases, respectively) and intravenous injection of adenoviral vector expressing LacZ (control), HB-EGF, HGF, or HB-EGF and HGF. HB-EGF, HGF, or a combination of the growth factors exerted potent antioncotic (antinecrotic), antiapoptotic, anticholestatic, and regenerative effects on hepatocytes in vivo, whereas no robust antiapoptotic or regenerative effects were detected in interlobular bile ducts. Based on serum transaminase levels, the acute protective effects of HB-EGF on hepatocytes were greater than those of HGF. On the other hand, liver fibrosis and cholestasis during the chronic phase were more potently inhibited by HGF compared with HB-EGF. Compared with either growth factor alone, combining HB-EGF and HGF produced greater anticholestatic and regenerative effects during the chronic phase. Taken together, these findings suggest that HB-EGF and HGF inhibited BDL-induced cholestatic liver injury, predominantly by exerting acute cytoprotective and chronic antifibrotic effects, respectively; combining the growth factors enhanced the anticholestatic effects and liver regeneration during the chronic phase. Our results contribute to a better understanding of the pathophysiologic roles of HB-EGF and HGF, as well as to the development of novel effective therapies for cholestatic liver injuries.
- Prime-boost using separate oncolytic viruses in combination with checkpoint blockade improves anti-tumor therapy.
Prime-boost using separate oncolytic viruses in combination with checkpoint blockade improves anti-tumor therapy. [Journal Article]Gene Ther 2016 Oct 25.GTIlett E, Kottke T, Thompson J, et al. The anti-tumor effects associated with oncolytic virus therapy are mediated significantly through immune-mediated mechanisms which depends both on the type of virus and the route of delivery. Here, we ...The anti-tumor effects associated with oncolytic virus therapy are mediated significantly through immune-mediated mechanisms which depends both on the type of virus and the route of delivery. Here, we show that intra-tumoral (i.t.) oncolysis by Reovirus induced the priming of a CD8+, Th1-type anti-tumor response. In contrast, systemically delivered VSV expressing a cDNA library of melanoma antigens (VSV-ASMEL) promoted a potent anti-tumor CD4+ Th17 response. Therefore, we hypothesised that combining the Reovirus-induced CD8+ T cell response, with the VSV-ASMEL CD4+ Th17 helper response, would produce enhanced anti-tumor activity. Consistent with this, priming with i.t. Reovirus, followed by an intra-venous VSV-ASMEL Th17 boost, significantly improved survival of mice bearing established subcutaneous (s.c.) B16 melanoma tumors. We also show that combination of either therapy alone with anti-PD-1 immune checkpoint blockade augmented both the Th1 response induced by systemically delivered Reovirus in combination with GM-CSF, and also the Th17 response induced by VSV-ASMEL. Significantly, anti-PD-1 also uncovered an anti-tumor Th1 response following VSV-ASMEL treatment that was not seen in the absence of checkpoint blockade. Finally, the combination of all three treatments (priming with systemically delivered Reovirus, followed by double boosting with systemic VSV-ASMEL and anti-PD-1) significantly enhanced survival, with long-term cures, compared to any individual, or double, combination therapies, associated with strong Th1 and Th17 responses to tumor antigens. Our data show that it is possible to generate fully systemic, highly effective anti-tumor immunovirotherapy by combining oncolytic viruses, along with immune checkpoint blockade, to induce complimentary mechanisms of anti-tumor immune responses.Gene Therapy accepted article preview online, 25 October 2016. doi:10.1038/gt.2016.70.
- Frequent Coamplification of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase and Downstream Signaling Genes in Japanese Primary Gastric Cancer and Conversion in Matched Lymph Node Metastasis.
Frequent Coamplification of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase and Downstream Signaling Genes in Japanese Primary Gastric Cancer and Conversion in Matched Lymph Node Metastasis. [Journal Article]Ann Surg 2016 Oct 24.AnnSSilva AN, Coffa J, Menon V, et al. This is the first and most comprehensive study in gastric cancer investigating the concordance between gene copy number status of targetable RTKs and downstream signaling oncogenes in primGC and LNmets...To establish the gene copy number status of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) and downstream signaling (DSS) genes genes in primary gastric cancer (primGC) and matched lymph node metastases (LNmet).Evidence suggests that coamplification between RTKs and DSSs and conversion between primGC and LNmet are associated with resistance to targeted therapy.DNA from 237 Japanese primGC and 103 matched LNmet was analyzed using a newly developed multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) probemix to investigate RTK (EGFR, HER2, FGFR2, and MET) and DSS (PIK3CA, KRAS, MYC, and CCNE1) gene copy number status. Results were compared between primGC and LNmet and related to clinicopathological data including survival.A total of 150 (63%) primGC had either RTK or DSS amplification. DSS coamplification was more frequent than RTK coamplification in primGC and LNmets. Moreover, 70 (30%) GC showed a disconcordant RTK and/or DSS gene copy number status between primGC and LNmet, most common was negative conversion for DSS genes (n=40 GC). The presence of RTK amplification in primGC was related to poorer survival in univariate analysis (P=0.04).This is the first and most comprehensive study in gastric cancer investigating the concordance between gene copy number status of targetable RTKs and downstream signaling oncogenes in primGC and LNmets. Future studies need to establish whether the relative high frequency of RTK and DSS coamplification and/or the relative high rate of negative conversion in LNmet can potentially explain recent failures of RTK targeted therapy in gastric cancer patients.